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Anthrax is a bacterial disease caused by Bacillus anthracis. The bacteria forms spores that are resistant to poor environmental conditions and can survive for years on dried or processed hides and soil.
Anthrax is primarily a disease of herbivores (i.e. cattle, sheep, goats, horses), which are exposed to the spores while grazing. Outbreaks typically occur in these areas when heavy rainfall is followed by a drought.
Animal cases pose minimal risk to humans. People can get infected through direct contact with sick animals or carcasses.
The human health risk from anthrax is limited to people who have direct contact with sick animals or carcasses.
Infection most commonly occurs when broken skin comes into direct contact with anthrax spores. The infection starts with a small bump on the skin that develops into a blister and then a skin ulcer with a black centre.
Individuals with these types of skin lesions should see a physician urgently.
People are exposed to naturally-occurring anthrax through:
There are three types of human illness caused by anthrax:
Anthrax is treated with antibiotics.
Skin anthrax responds very well to antibiotic treatment. The current practice in Saskatchewan is to give a 14 day treatment course of antibiotics if skin lesions develop.
Sometimes a preventive 10- to 14-day course of antibiotics may be prescribed to people who had direct, unprotected contact with infected animals or carcasses, and have broken skin.
For inhalation exposures only, the official recommendation used during the U.S. bioterrorism events of 2001 was to use preventive antibiotics for 60 days.
Mortality is less than one percent with antibiotic treatments. Although treatment doesn't shorten the evolution of skin lesions, it does prevent development of a more serious form of anthrax.
The risk of getting anthrax is very low, even to agricultural workers caring for sick animals. They typically get the skin form of disease, which is easily treated with antibiotics.
Anthrax is not transmitted from person to person.
Inhalation anthrax can only be contracted by directly inhaling anthrax spores. Gastrointestinal anthrax is acquired by eating uncooked, contaminated food.
There is a very small risk of infection with skin anthrax from direct contact with the lesions on another person's body before antibiotic treatment begins. This risk can be prevented through routine infection control practices.
People cannot get anthrax from swimming in water that is used by cattle or drained from areas with cattle.
There is a human vaccine against anthrax, but it is not approved for widespread use because it hasn't been comprehensively tested in human trials. The vaccine is sometimes given to people likely to be exposed to anthrax through their occupation, such as tannery workers or military personnel. It's not widely available and it's not recommended for mass immunization.
There is a vaccine used for animals which is made with a non-pathogenic form of anthrax. If you get an accidental needle poke with this vaccine, you do not need to take any special measures or get treatment – you can clean the wound with soap and water.
You should also make sure your tetanus shots are up to date (every 10 years).
Although all mammals are susceptible to anthrax, it is primarily a disease of herbivores. Cattle, bison, sheep, goats and horses are highly susceptible. Omnivores, like pigs, and carnivores, such as dogs and cats, are less susceptible and can sometimes be exposed to the bacterium repeatedly before becoming infected. Birds and wildlife also appear to be at a lower risk for anthrax.
For more information:
Contact the Chief Veterinary Officer, Saskatchewan Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock Branch at (306) 787-5547; or
Visit the Canadian Food Inspection Agency and click on Animals/Reportable Diseases/Anthrax.
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