By: Barb Ziesman, AAg – Provincial Specialist, Plant Disease
It may be too late to control the plant disease in your crop this year, but it is not too late to learn from them. The best way to manage field crop diseases is through an integrated approach of cultural control strategies (such as crop rotation), host plant resistance and fungicide application when required. To develop an optimal integrated disease management plan, you need knowledge of the disease risk and field history. You can evaluate disease risk during the growing season by monitoring environmental conditions and scouting throughout the growing season to look for initial symptoms of the disease or signs of the pathogen. You can acquire knowledge of the field’s history through end-of-season disease scouting and accurate record keeping.
Many plant diseases are strongly influenced by crop rotation. Short rotations between susceptible crops will increase pathogen levels within the field and increase the potential for yield and quality loss due to disease. When you document the disease history of the field, you can use crop rotation and other disease management strategies to manage pathogen levels within the field and reduce the occurrence of disease epidemics and substantial yield loss. In addition, by monitoring disease levels from year to year, you may also find early signs of fungicide-resistant pathogen populations or a breakdown in host plant resistance.
The decision to apply a fungicide for disease control is often difficult. Scouting for disease levels at the end of the season can be a very good way to evaluate your fungicide application decisions; the results can also guide your decisions in subsequent years. This is particularly true if a fungicide-free check-strip has been left in a field. Leaving a check-strip makes it possible to compare the fungicide-treated area to a non-treated area and can be a good indication of whether or not the fungicide application was successful in reducing yield losses.
When scouting, it is important to look at more than one location within a field. A good rule of thumb is to scout in a “W” pattern and look at multiple plants from a minimum of five sites in fields less than 100 acres and a minimum of 10 sites in fields greater than 100 acres. Pull multiple plants from each site and examine the entire plant for symptoms of the disease – including the roots. Record what diseases were present, what percentage of plants examined had each disease, how severe the infection was and what plant parts were affected.
Your scouting kit should include:
- A magnifying glass;
- A record-keeping sheet;
- A digital camera;
- A small digging trowel;
- Paper or plastic bags to collect samples in case you encounter a disease or other plant injury symptom that you cannot identify;
- Plant disease fact sheets or other publications;
- Disposable plastic boot covers; and
- A sanitation solution
For more information on disease scouting, please check out our Plant Disease Scouting 101 fact sheet.